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Lugansk ( Luhansk ) City Information


Lugansk - administrative, economic and cultural centre Lugansk area (old name of the city - Voroshilovgrad).Arising the city in 1795, is connected with base on river Lugani first ironworks in Ukraine. Lugansk - a large industrial city of the Ukraine. It Is Located in northeasterly part Doneckogo pool, at merging of the rivers Lugani and Olihovka (the pool Severskogo Donca). It Is Divided on 4 regions: ZHovtnevyy, Artemovskiy, Leninist, Kamennobrodskiy.

The Population Luganska 522 thous. forehead. The Occupied area - 26,7 thous. kv. km.

At the end of XVIII century Russia successfully won a number of Black Sea wars. A wide access to the Black Sea was opened for Russia as well as a chance of using the rich natural resources of Azov Sea territories. The access to the Black Sea and joining of Crimea stipulated a need of fortification of the South borders. Olds Turkish fortresses, and newly-built ones were used for this purpose. The fortresses and the fleet needed cannons. Industrial Ural was far off, and government came to a conclusion of construction of a government plant close to the Black Sea shore. "Godfather" of Lugansk foundry plant certainly was a commander-in-chief of the Black Sea fleet, admiral Nikolay Semenovitch Mordvinov, and "godmother" - empress Ekaterina the Second, who signed in 1795 the edict on the settlement of foundry plant on the river Lugan'. Edict was prepared by Mordvinov, since he was one who managed to persuade Petersburg Admiralty to switch 715 thousand silver roubles left from construction of the young Black Sea fleet to the construction of cannon-foundry plant in the south Russia. Mordvinov entrusted a Scottish foundry engineer and inventor, Carl


Gaskoin, to build a cannon-foundry plant. After close study of the natural deposits Carl Gaskoin offered to manufacture cast iron cannons, rather then copper ones. For this purpose an ironworks was built at the village of Cambrod (Stone Ford) near the river Lugan'.

Plant was built in rather a short term. First cast iron was produced in 1800. Canons and projectiles, cast at Lugansk foundry plant, protected Russia in War 1812, in the Crimean war of 1853-1856. Together with the plant, a village was growing that was called Lugansk plant. By the 30-th of the XIX century there were already nearly 200 private houses, along with the barracks where the most poor population nestled. Amongst the workers there were Russians, Ukrainians, Poles, Belorussians, Tatars, Jews. Each nationality tended to save their own traditions, customs, but gradually merging, they formed some particular flavor of Lugansk region.

First, city was being built without an officially confirmed plan. All vertical streets were identified as lines (as in Saint Petersbourgh), and all horizontal ones had names. The most first street of the city was English Street. Foreign specialists who arrived to work at the plant settled there. A mansion for the director of plant was built there. On the same street, in the family of a factory physician, Vladimir Dal, a compiler of a well-known Explanatory dictionary of Russian, was born. Later have other streets appeared such as Peterbourgskaya, Uspenskaya, Kazanskaya, Bankovskaya. Later Peterbourgskaya Street became the main one. Here two-stored houses were built, in which, as a rule, shops, barbers' shops were placed at the ground floor. In Lugansk there were more then ten churches of different religions: Kazanskaya Preobrazhenskaya,Trinity, Assumotion, Petropavlovskaya, Nikolayevsky cathedral, a synagogue, catholic church, several of prayer houses. To great regret all these buildings that had a great value as architectural monuments were destroyed in the 30th of XX century. The only church that survived but was greatly damaged is Petropavlovskaya church in the Stone Ford.

In 1882 Lugansk considering its economic position, by the solicitation of local merchants and gentries was raised in the status of a district city. In the springtime of 1883 the first Chairman of City Duma (Mayor), Nikolay Petrovitch Kholodilin was elected, and Duma itself was placed in one of the best buildings of the city on Kazanskaya Street.

With increasing of a number of population, a network of schools increased. In the city there were several private gymnasiums, two public gymnasiums, schools, grade schools. With the development of industry in Lugansk several banks appeared in the city. The largest was Azov-Don bank on Kazanskaya Street.

In 1903 Lugansk received its court of arms.

Life of the citizens of Lugansk was varied and interesting. .Several libraries, movie theaters, a circus, parks, clubs were in the city.

In 70-80-ieth of XIX century new factories and plants appeared in Lugansk. The largest one was Lugansk cartridge plant modified from foundry and locomotive plant of Gartman. In 1898 there were already more than 30 industrial enterprises, as well as much small businesses and craft workshops.

At the beginning of the XX-th centuryLugansk has confirmed itself as a large industrial center, as a city with Its own multinational traditions and particular mode of life.

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