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Socialist realism hammer and pedestal

Опубликовано: 31.01.2020

In the former Soviet Union in the time of Joseph Stalin a bloody butcher, the socialist realism art movement it has become a must. Thus, the art was used as a tool for political propaganda: the leaders and workers have been put on a pedestal, the reality was represented more beautiful than it was in reality. In the west, for that is also found in the Eastern Bloc countries, it has long been considered a punishment because of his political power. It is unlikely that they were sizing to the possible artistic merit of works. Now that the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc has long remained the past, in recent years there is a new interest in both Eastern and Western Europe to the fact that he had made socialist realism.

Stalin and the Soviet Union

Socialist realism hammer and pedestal

The Soviet Union was established in 1922, five years after the Russian October Revolution, and four years after the violent death of the king. The New Republic was a socialist name, in practice it is headed by the Communist Party.

After the death of Lenin, the founder and the undisputed head of the Soviet Union in 1924, Joseph Stalin, who contributed to the October 1917 revolution as a Bolshevik revolutionary, he has gradually become the most important person in the Soviet Union. It turned out to a dictator who did not avoid the use of force to perpetuate their power.

At the time of his reign, which lasted from 1929 until his death in 1953 the Soviet Union has evolved from a peasant society in the industrialized. Due to incorrect agricultural policy in the country have suffered a variety of hunger as a result of which many died.

Stalin also made an extraordinary number of victims in the political field. His political opponents and dissidents jailed, banned or eliminated. During the Second World War, after the initial occupation, he was able to expel the Germans from the Soviet Union and the resulting crush them.

Art as a means of propaganda

After Stalin's death, the population massively mourned. But soon after the death of his crimes were convicted and a period destalyatsyi. Nevertheless, Stalin is still loved by many Russians.

He tried to increase his popularity and to justify his regime, among other things, using the art. For this purpose, it was established socialist realism - the artistic movement that emerged in the early 1930s, in order to make the ideology of the Soviet regime, the popular and socialist values ​​teach people.

To achieve this, art was supposed to be realistic, imaginative and intuitive and, therefore, satisfy the taste of the masses. In addition, works of art were to be energetic, exciting and colorful, to give hope and optimism at a time when life was not always so.

Initially, the Russian Revolution of 1917 gave artistic life unprecedented impetus to upgrade. The modern movement had been taken, and the avant-garde developed in all areas of art. Constructivism, futurism and abstract art have played a significant role. However, only a small cultural elite was able to appreciate it. So what should have been otherwise.

Socialist realism hammer and pedestal

With the introduction of collective man wanted the state to offer the public a new concept of humanity, and thus to make progress. Art might contribute to the fact that no longer serves man, but only to serve the regime and the collective.

Artists agree with this idea and initially did not have much trouble with the new policy, although the imposed least, seemed to come at the expense of their freedom. Most of them were able to perform the imposed guidelines and could add its own contribution to its work, despite the limitations above.

In the end, the art world was very rigidly regulated; since 1932, with the only rule of Stalin, Socialist Realism became the reference point for the creation of all kinds of art. This has increased the pressure on artists. They were joined by the top artists in the trade unions, after which some were against forced disguise the fact that it was not in a socialist society. for them the work was difficult, if not impossible.

Even after Stalin's death, the socialist realism art movement continued, albeit in a diluted form; It was also adopted other expressions of realist art. Meanwhile, the flow of the USSR also found its way to other countries of the Eastern bloc. By the way, the socialist or communist countries, such as China, North Korea and Cuba, also had some form of socialist realism.

Only with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the disappearance of the communist regime there was a requirement imposed in the top of the artistic movement and socialist art has disappeared from sight. Not too literally, because the marks on the city street scene could not just delete. However, leaders of the sculptures were dismantled, and many works of art were in the warehouse, to forget. In the end, people are likely will not be reminded of the painful past and instead focus on the present. Museum, incidentally, kept the best works in their collections.

In the West, almost did not evaluate the socialist realism, which was considered as a form of propaganda art. The fact that the works of art can also be artistic value, most did not take.

From now on, attitudes have changed. In the former Eastern bloc, there are museums that are clearly dedicated to socialist realism. And in the West works valued regardless of their origin, and are valued for their artistic quality.

Artistic disciplines and art

Therefore, socialist realism is widely present in the public domain was present in all artistic disciplines. In addition to fine art, architecture, theater and literature, music, photography and film, and even dance devoted socialist-realistic look. Part of what was happening in art, did not emerge as an individual and as a collective creation.

In the visual arts it has been done many sculptures both groups and individuals. Literally on a pedestal they were delivered not only the leaders, but also contemporary heroes such as workers, soldiers and farmers. The graphics are also arose as a very appropriate way of propaganda, to which a large audience was reached.

Initially, the painting seemed less satisfactory means of propaganda than other artistic disciplines, which in the end had a much greater volume. However, the art has traditionally had different genres, which are now proved to be appropriate for the transmission of political messages. These works have contributed to the history, landscape, urban landscape and portraits.

The most important topics were the political and historical events, the development of urban and rural areas, industrialization, new people, the leaders of portraits of individual farmers, workers and athletes, and by focusing on a collective, group portraits. Painting still life added little and become less relevant, although it was so safe reflect an innocent scene of flowers, fruit or interior.

The above expression of fine art intended for the general public and dominated the public space. Therefore, in order to make an impression, they often have a huge size. Offered the reality was often idealized, utopichnay reality or a theatrical presentation of the historical event.

As socialism color red has become a widely used color. Paintings and sculptural groups often look dynamic.

Existing art movements, both old and new, were part of the socialist realism. Painting styles can be prepared, for example, Baroque, Renaissance, Impressionism and futuristic. Later, after 1970, the western pop art developed its Soviet form: art Sotsa.

Women who have been immortalized by artists were usually not very thin. Where their sexual comrades in Europe were to be lean, people in the Soviet Union have been linked to hunger and lack of food: not as convenient propaganda tool.

The image of women in the Soviet Union at the time of socialism was optimistic. Women often depict sports. This coincided with a change in their position, if they contribute to the various spheres of society and participate in workflows. Despite the emphasis on large teams, model family was also useful topic.

There was another reason to draw athletes - both men and women. Sports had elevate people. Especially in sports groups, well-connected with the ideals of a socialist society. And with a focus on sports building, caring for him may well increase, which often do not have enough people in the countryside.

Artists also took a focus on sports. athlete's body offered them the opportunity to draw the human body, perhaps even with a hint of eroticism. Moreover, the choice of this theme was politically safe: athletes represented the youth, strength, and success with which wanted to determine the mode.

Renowned sports portrait - Alexander Samochvalav 1932: Girl in a football shirt. He was spotted at the World Exhibition in Paris and called the Soviet version of the Mona Lisa.

Such a portrait that Ivan Kulikov drew earlier, in 1929, the athlete in almost the same shirt. Natural drawing leaders held an important place in the genre of portraiture. Like Lenin, Stalin often show up as a leader. However, during the destalizatsyi in the 1960s, many of his portraits were destroyed, making them quite rare today.

On Stalin depicted figures length of only one meter sixty-five and a few set figure invariably depicted as a tree Man; scars caused by pox infection at a young age, have been omitted.

Factory workers, farmers and soldiers were also drawn and depicted as the new heroes while working in the factory, on land or during battle or preparing for it. Komsomol girl Konstantin Juon since 1926 - a group portrait of five village girls, illustrated with plenty of overlap and cut.

Rapidly growing industry has been an important condition for the development of the Soviet Union. In the early 1930s, Pavel Filonov was instructed by the Government to draw portraits adorned with "shock workers": workers who are important to the Soviet economy. He had to endure, that even such a safe topic has not always been adopted without a fight. For example, since 1931 the factory "Oochtgloren" were rejected by his "Stootarbeidsters", and on the table in the foreground was an elderly woman in glasses. The woman in question, will be too old and emits very little energy and dynamics, to serve as a role model.

Much more shining tekstylskiya masters who portrayed Alexander Dayneko in 1927. The picture, with its white and silver glitter even gave the dedication of a working definition of the hill. He made the first artistic journey abroad in 1935 and visited the United States, among others. In a series of drawings of nocturnal frivolity he recorded American culture, in contrast to the Soviet themes.

This ode to the employee, again feminine woman - underground worker Alexander Samachvalava to drill in 1937.

Pictures from urban and rural areas, industry and agriculture

In addition to the more intimate portraits of workers, large workers scenes were shown to revitalize the factory halls and public spaces.

Life of the city, particularly in the capital, Moscow, has also been the source of inspiration of the artist. From different parts of the vast Soviet empire, the city attracted people of all kinds of groups to seek their salvation. That's because there was Moscow-melting pot, the development of which is often recorded by artists.

Here, in the center of politics, as we witnessed important historical events and commemoration. They were written in huge fragments of stories and put in the spotlight. A good example of this is "Lofzang" in October, Alexander Gerasimov, the canvas size of 1942 more than 4h7 meters. In Moscow, the Bolshoi Theater celebrated 25 years of the revolution. On the canvas there are more than two hundred people from all walks of life, including the artist himself.

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In addition to industrialization, an important role was played by the collective farming. There was a lot of collective farms: farms, where farmers worked the land together. Life in the countryside, villages and collective farms were useful items. Huge, huge landscape with one or more of agricultural workers was suitable for large-sized paintings. The viewer as if drawn into the landscape.

Representative examples display the countryside and kolkhoz workers - "In the field of peace" written in 1950 by Andrea Milnikavym; big picture with a group of women in the landscape, ready to work on the ground. Kalhozski farmer Alexander Dayneko cycling since 1935 as shown in large format. The paper shows a landscape divided into two places along the path with a bicycle A woman dressed in a red dress in the foreground.

Malevich and socialist realism

Kazimir Malevich's career (1878 - 1935), Russian artist, who is also known in the West and worked in Stalin's time, shows how the regime could deal with artists. Malevich originally sought due to the different artistic movements of his time. That's how he eventually ended Futurism and Cubism. However, he went a step further and in 1915 developed Suprematism, which expresses the feeling through dense geometric shapes. As avant-garde, he was ahead of his contemporaries.

Socialist realism hammer and pedestal

In 1917, Malevich, joined the Association of leftist artists. He wanted to be an innovation in the arts coincided with the new policy and a new culture, although Lenin was a supporter of the more traditional, realistic art.

At this time, modern innovations Malevich were highly appreciated; he was appointed Chairman of the National Committee of Art in 1917. He advocated the reform of art education. Since the 1920s his views coincided with the regime, which is expected, that the artists will serve socialism. Modern skin Malevich gradually became controversial. The death of Lenin and Stalin's reign weakened his leadership position.

If in 1927, Malevich critical of socialist realism, it had far-reaching consequences for his career. In that year, he went through Warsaw to Berlin. Despite the fact that he had received reports in Germany the government's tightening in their own country, Malevich decided to return to the Soviet Union. He quit his job in Germany, hoping to take her a year later.

However, the tide turned against him. In 1929, his work was seen as a civil arts, and he lost the function. In 1930 he was imprisoned for a few weeks. However, Malevich continued to play a role in Russian art.

His work in the years 1928-1932 reflects the life of the peasantry. Performances are partly based on more abstract works, but with greater figuralnastsyu. However, the use of color and presentation of working does not give realistic; paintings contain hidden criticism of the forced collectivization of the countryside and, therefore, does not actually meet the criteria of socialist realism.

In 1932, Stalin finally realized socialist realism as an indispensable artistic movement, and all the art groups were disbanded. Malevich's work survived the final shift. This time, he painted portraits in the style of the Renaissance, which showed Suprematist own turn as a tacit expression of resistance to the regime.

In 1935 the artist died of cancer. Although he was not in good hands with the regime, his funeral was a significant event, funded by the government.

His works have been exhibited for the last time in the year of his death, only staying in museum warehouses until 1962 as a forbidden art. Since 1977, he was finally carried back to the open ground.

The work, which remained in Germany, survived the Nazi regime, which seized and destroyed the modern art. In 1951, much of it acquired Stedeliyka Museum in Amsterdam.

Exhibitions in Assen and Amsterdam

With an exhibition of Malevich and the Russian avant-garde - in the exhibition from October 19, 2013 to February 2, 2014 at the Municipal Museum in Amsterdam - the first time in recent years, the exhibition was again devoted to this artist. This international exhibition paid attention to his Russian colleagues on avant-garde art.

Exhibition of Soviet myth - socialist realism 1932 - 1960 years was demonstrated with the November 17, 2012 on June 9, 2013 at the Museum Drentsa in Assen.

A wide selection of paintings, partially described in this article, and largely made in Stalin's time, he showed a variety of popular themes of Russian art of the period. The exhibition is also a sculpture.

Art exhibitions, except for works of Malevich, and a number of others, come from artists who are in the west (still) relatively unknown.

Курорт
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